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Insight Into the Proteins in the Brain That Detect Cannabis

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Researchers at the University of Bristol have made new progress in understanding how cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs), the proteins that detect the active components of marijuana, are controlled in the brain.

The brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells that are constantly communicating with one another at specialized junctions called synapses. Nerve cells possess extensions called axons, which send signals to synapses, and dendrites, which receive information from synapses.

At the synapse, the electrical ‘firing’ of a nerve cell causes the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminals of its axon. These neurotransmitters cross the synapse and pass on the signal by binding to receptors at postsynaptic sites on the dendrites of the next nerve cell.

CB1Rs help control information flow in the brain by binding molecules made in the brain called endocannabinoids, which influence brain functions such as pain, appetite, mood, and memory. Unusually, endocannabinoid signaling goes in the reverse direction compared to most other neurotransmitters. The ‘receiving’ CB1Rs are located at presynaptic sites on axons, whereas the release sites are at postsynaptic sites on dendrites.

This reverse or ‘retrograde’ signaling that activates presynaptic CB1Rs ‘dampen down’ presynaptic release of other neurotransmitters resulting in a slowing of brain activity. Moreover, the active components of cannabis bind to CB1Rs in a similar manner to endocannabinoids, resulting in the ‘mellow’ sensation caused by the recreational use of cannabis.

For CB1Rs to regulate brain function properly, it is essential that they are sent to the right place on the surface of the axon. However, very little is known about exactly how this occurs. The research published today [Tuesday 30 April] in eLife investigated how this process happens.

The Bristol group showed that a specific part of the CB1R protein plays a key role in getting CB1R into axons. The research team tracked newly made CB1Rs in nerve cells grown in a dish and found that a short region of CB1R is crucial for sending CB1R to the axon and preventing it from going to the dendrites. They also discovered that this region stabilizes CB1R at the surface of the axon, making it more available to receive signals from endocannabinoids.

Jeremy Henley, Professor of Molecular Neuroscience in Bristol’s School of Biochemistry, said: “In recent years there has been tremendous interest in — and controversy about — activation of CB1R by medical marijuana. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the activation of CB1Rs could be therapeutically useful for a wide range of diseases such as chronic pain, epilepsy, or multiple sclerosis. Understanding the fundamental properties of CB1R is an important basis for future studies exploring the efficacy and optimization of these targeted approaches.”

It is hoped that this increased understanding of how CB1Rs behave in nerve cells will pave the way for future studies aimed at examining the possible medical uses of marijuana, or other drugs that target CB1Rs, in treating a wide range of disorders.

This article originally appeared on ScienceDaily.


Journal Reference:

  1. Alexandra Fletcher-Jones, Keri L Hildick, Ashley J Evans, Yasuko Nakamura, Kevin A Wilkinson, Jeremy M Henley. The C-terminal helix 9 motif in rat cannabinoid receptor type 1 regulates axonal trafficking and surface expressioneLife, 2019; 8 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.44252

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How to Choose the Right E-liquid for Your Needs?

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When you decide to start vaping, the most significant issue people run into is choosing the right e-liquid for their needs. The market is full of hundreds of different flavors, but that’s not the only thing you should consider when buying e-liquids.

You also have to think about nicotine strength and the VG/PG ratio. Things become more comfortable after you’ve tried a few e-liquids, but if you’re entirely new to vaping, you must first understand the components of an e-liquid and how it works. 

The price also plays a significant role in the selection process, so let’s take a closer look at how you can find the perfect vaping liquid, like the ones you can find at gosmokefree.co.uk.

Key Features of E-liquids

When buying e-liquids, there are some key features you should check before spending any money. They are:

  • Flavor
  • Nicotine strength
  • VG/PG ratio
  • The place where you are buying the liquid
  • Value

Now, let’s take a look at each feature and explain how to recognize good e-liquids.

Flavor

Choosing the right flavor might seem easy, but when you consider how many available flavors there are, things become a little more complicated. Sure, picking something fruity might seem like a logical choice, but what if you like tobacco? 

Well, the good news is that you’ll be able to find flavors you didn’t expect. Let’s break things down into three main flavor categories. 

Tobacco Flavor

Many people switch to vaping when they want to quit smoking. Vaping is a healthier alternative to smoking, but some people prefer to keep that distinctive tobacco flavor when they vape. You can find all kinds of tobacco flavored e-liquids on the market, and your choice depends on your needs. 

If you’re quitting smoking, you should start with a liquid that has a strong nicotine level. You will get your daily intake of nicotine without all of those harmful substances usually found in cigarettes. 

Tobacco flavored e-liquids are just what you need to stop smoking and improve your overall health in the long-run. However, if you prefer an e-liquid that tastes like something you would drink or eat, you need something more fruity.

Fruity Flavors are the Most Popular

Most vapers go for the fruity flavors like strawberry, raspberry, watermelon, lemon & lime, and so on. Fruity e-liquids are sweet, and you can puff on them the whole day, and you still won’t get enough. 

All major e-liquid manufacturers offer dozens of fruity flavors, so you’ll probably have to try a few of them before you find the one that suits you. Fruity e-liquids work well for people who want to vape but have never smoked.

Exotic Flavors

By exotic flavors, we mean characteristics you wouldn’t expect. Sure, there are plenty of classic flavors for you to try, but some are a little more interesting. For example, you can find flavors like Custard, Cornish Ice Cream, Rhubarb, and so on. 

Companies are working hard to come up with some unique tastes, so you’ll run into new, exciting e-liquids all the time. 

E-liquid Nicotine Strength

Vaping allows you to fully control the nicotine intake, which is excellent for people who never smoked cigarettes. Many e-liquids have low nicotine levels, making them ideal for people with zero nicotine tolerance. 

However, if you switch to vaping from smoking, you’ll need something with a kick. Medium and robust nicotine levels will be just what you need, but without the other harmful substances usually found in cigarettes. 

If you’re using a direct to lung e-cigarette, nicotine levels of 6mg or even 3mg will be more than enough. On the other hand, if your device is what’s called “mouth to lung,” you’ll need a liquid with at least 12mg of nicotine. It will take you only a few puffs to figure out if the liquid has the strength you need. 

VG/PG Ratio

VG and PG ratios are the stuff that confuses people, but it’s elementary. The higher the VG, the thicker the e-liquid will be. It will create denser vapor when you exhale. High-level VG liquids are ideal for devices with sub-ohm coils, used for direct to lung style of vaping. 

The 50% VG ratio is perfect for “mouth to lung” devices, and they usually have higher nicotine levels.

The Overall Quality of the E-liquid

You should always check the company that made the e-liquid because there are many low-quality products out there. Here are some questions you should ask yourself before making a purchase:

  • Is the company’s website professional?
  • Are the liquids tested and certified by the FDA?
  • Are they made in the US, or are they imported?
  • Are they made according to the industry standards?
  • What ingredients were used in the manufacturing process?

Always take the time to check everything about an e-liquid before you buy, because they’re not all made the same. Find the products that are made to the highest of standards and choose your favorite flavor.

Value for Money

The value for the money you pay plays a significant role. You can find e-liquids with the same flavor but with a substantial price difference as well. 

The price range is based on the product quality, so the more you play, the better product you get. It’s always better to spend a few dollars extra than vaping on low-quality e-liquids. 

Conclusion

The bottom line is, you get what you pay for. Check the bottle’s back to find out nicotine levels, and the ingredients. If it’s made to the highest industry standards, go ahead and give it a try. Have fun!

About the Author: Rebecca is a cannabis and health industry consultant who frequently writes about the latest trends in the industry with only one motive that is to create awareness about healthy living. She has been writing for a long time now and is becoming a recognized name in the cannabis industry.  

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THC vs CBD: What You Need to Know

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With the legalization of cannabis in several states of the United States of America, people are increasingly becoming more curious about their options. Cannabis, a plant species that has taken the market by a storm, has two major compounds, namely tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). 

CBD is found in both marijuana and hemp. However, it is found in abundance in hemp plants. On the other hand, marijuana plants contain high concentrations of THC. 

Both of the compounds can interact with the endocannabinoid system present in the body to result in different effects. 

Molecular Structures 

Though both the compounds have the same molecular structure, there is a difference in the way the atoms are arranged, which ultimately results in different effects. 

As THC and CBD are chemically similar to the endocannabinoids in our body, both the compounds can interact with the cannabinoid receptors easily. The interaction results in the release of neurotransmitters that transmit messages to cells regarding sleep, stress, immune function, pain, and so on. 

Psychoactive Components 

The most notable difference between both the compounds is the fact that THC is a psychoactive compound, while CBD isn’t. Therefore, CBD does not cause the “high” most people experience after consuming THC. 

THC is known to bind with the CB1 receptors, which results in a sense of euphoria. As CBD binds weakly to the CBD1 receptors, it not only doesn’t result in the “high” but also interferes with the THC binding to reduce its psychoactive effects. 

Legality 

The laws related to cannabis production and consumption is evolving with every passing year in the United States. As THC and marijuana are mentioned in the list of controlled substances, they aren’t legal federally. 

However, specific states like Washington D.C. have passed laws that make high levels of THC and medical marijuana legal. Yet, it has to be prescribed by a healthcare practitioner. Additionally, some states have also made the recreational use of THC and cannabis legal. 

States where you can find marijuana for medical and recreational purposes mostly allow the sale of CBD as well. 

Before you can buy THC or CBD products, it is essential to understand your state laws in order to avoid legal ramifications. If you reside in a state where the sale of cannabis products is authorized, you must find a trustworthy store. Nowadays, you can even buy these products online. Heavenlyhempflower is one of the premium stores online where you can explore a wide range of cannabis products. 

Medical Benefits 

The medical benefits of both compounds are quite similar. They can help in the treatment of a variety of conditions. As CBD doesn’t result in the euphoric effects associated with THC, many people prefer using CBD. 

In 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of Epidiolex, the very first prescription medication with CBD for the treatment of very difficult-to-control and rare forms of epilepsy. 

There are many health benefits to using CBD. Some of the conditions that can be treated with CBD include – 

  • Anxiety 
  • Depression  
  • Migraines  
  • Nausea 
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease 
  • Psychosis   
  • Pain  
  • Inflammation   
  • Seizures 

On the other hand, THC can also offer many medical benefits. Some of the conditions that you can treat with THC are as follows – 

  • Anxiety  
  • Nausea   
  • Low Appetite   
  • Insomnia 
  • Glaucoma 
  • Muscle Spasticity 
  • Pain 

Side Effects 

The human body can tolerate CBD pretty well, even if it is in high doses. Research has indicated that the side effects resulting from the use of CBD are due to drug-to-drug interactions. 

Some of the side effects associated with the use of THC are mentioned below – 

  • Memory Loss 
  • Slower Reaction Times 
  • Red Eyes 
  • Dry Mouth   
  • Coordination Problems  
  • Increased Heart Rate 

These side effects are a result of the psychoactive properties of THC. It is important to note that both the compounds aren’t fatal. However, when THC is consumed in high quantities, it can result in long-term adverse psychological effects. It is particularly true for adolescents. 

As the brain of a teenager is still developing, high exposure to THC could increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, according to a research study

Method of Administration 

With the cannabis market on its rise, you will be able to find a plethora of options in CBD and THC products. 

CBD is found in many different forms, such as – 

  • Oils 
  • Gummies 
  • Supplements 
  • Gels 
  • Similarly, THC is also available in many forms. They include – 
  • Capsules  
  • Edibles
  • Tinctures 
  • Oils 
  • Smokable Products 

Drug Testing 

CBD and THC are cannabinoids that end up in the fat reservoirs of the body. Therefore, they can show up even after a couple of days of usage. All drug tests cannot detect CBD, but you will find CBD-sensitive tests in the market as well. Most of the drug tests are designed to loom for chemicals, including THC. 

Closing Thoughts 

THC and CBD are two primary cannabinoids that are found in cannabis. Hemp plants contain a high concentration of CBD and trace amounts of THC, while it’s the opposite in marijuana plants. 

Both the compounds that be useful in treating similar health conditions, but the difference lies in the psychoactive effects. THC makes a person “high,” which isn’t the same with CBD. Therefore, people prefer using either of the compounds of their unique effects. 

It is important to note that both the substances are illegal federally and have only be approved for recreational and medicinal purposes in specific states. If you plan on using them, you should be clear about the laws in your country. 

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How Long Do Edibles Take To Kick In?

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Marijuana has come a long way from being banned to now being legal for recreational and medicinal use in some states. Researchers have conducted various studies to understand its potency, growing methods, and its properties of healing many ailments. As a result, a plethora of cannabis products has become popular, like CBD tinctures, oils, and creams. Cannabis edibles are one such invention where the properties of cannabis are infused into foods or drinks. 

Gone are those days when we had to make a cannabis product at home like brownies and cookies. Now one can get access to a variety of edibles in stores such as candies, chocolates, CBD water, and flavored drinks. The cannabis edibles are an excellent substitute for smoking as you don’t have the risk of getting chronic cough or phlegm production. The experience after intake of edibles is distinct from smoking. Edibles take more time to enter the bloodstream than smoking. A first-timer of cannabis should know the dosages and how the body responds to it to avoid an overdose. 

Keep reading, as we will be discussing our body’s mechanism to process edibles, the amount of time it takes to influence the body, and the duration for which it lasts.

Edibles mechanism in the body:

It is essential to understand how the body absorbs the CBD in the edibles to determine why the experience and time taken are different in different people. When a person inhales cannabis through smoke or vapor, all the active components of cannabis enter directly into the blood and to the brain, which shows its effects instantly. However, edibles go through a different process. When a person ingests cannabis edibles, CBD enters into the blood through the intestines and liver and then spreads to the entire body. 

The quality of marijuana in use also comes into play for the time it takes to kick in. It usually differs from the methods of using it. Smoking a strain like a sunset sherbet will have a quicker onset time compared to something like using a topical. 

So, this is how the body processes the edibles. Now, let’s understand the time taken to see the impact.

How Long Do Edibles Take To Kick In?

The process of digesting an edible, absorbing, and then spreading to the entire body takes a longer time than vaping and smoking. In general, it takes 30 minutes to an hour to begin feeling high after taking cannabis edibles. The intensity of the “high” depends on THC and CBD levels, of course. The more the THC level, the sooner one gets high, whereas, in the case of higher CBD content, there is no euphoria.

Photography by Carmen Cheung, Makeup by Sophie Hsin for Make Up For Ever/Plutino Group. Nails by Grace Kim/Majesty’s Pleasure

Edibles Canada is very effective in treating various conditions but may vary with CBD and THC ratio.

Apart from these, the physical condition of the person taking edibles also influences the onset time. The factors include:

  • Gender
  • Weight
  • Eating habits
  • Metabolism
  • Cannabis tolerance

Therefore, the kicking time for high THC-low CBD and vice versa types of edibles will depend on these factors and influence its speed of getting digested and absorbed into the bloodstream. Edibles like gum and lollipops show a faster onset because the absorption process starts from the saliva in the mouth. Other edibles like wafers, gummies, and cakes that need chewing take much longer to show effects due to the long process of digestion, metabolization in the liver, and then finally entering the bloodstream to explain its impact on the brain.

Thus, it takes time to encounter the edibles effect. So, do not overdose and wait for a minimum of 24 hours before taking the next dose of cannabis edibles. Also, make sure to buy good quality edibles from authentic dealers. 

How long do the effects last?

As per a review article, the results of edibles outlasts that of smoking, i.e., for more than six hours. The time-period of the impact depends on factors like dosage consumed and the endurance of the person. THC rich edibles have a longer and more potent high, and the effects can exhibit within three hours.

Tolerance levels also matter for the duration of the effects. If the person is a regular cannabis user, then he/she might not feel the effects as high as a novice cannabis user. Also, a person with moderate metabolism might feel the impact for a longer duration than a person with a high metabolism.

Irrespective of the dosage, the effect of edibles shows quicker when consumed in an empty stomach. That’s why many medical professionals advise eating little food before taking edibles to ensure that the effects come gradually and not that strong. If one consumes food after taking cannabis edible on an empty belly, it will also increase the onset of the impact, as the food consumed can push the edible more swiftly into the digestive system. So, for experiencing the effects of cannabis edibles faster, take them without food and eat a small portion of food after 15 minutes to accelerate the digestive process.

Dosage:

Edibles are available in different dosages. The strength of the edibles relies on the strain used, THC content, baking time, and heat—a beginner dosage of THC in an edible ranges from half a milligram to five milligrams. Generally, edibles contain an amount between 10 to 15 milligrams of THC, which is adequate for a person who has tried cannabis before and wants a long-lasting impact.

A THC content of more than 20 milligrams is a high dose and is not advisory. It might heighten the risk of adverse reactions. Usually, heavy smokers, who want a stronger and lasting consequence, consume such a high dosage.

According to an article, the THC impact from edibles can show up in some individuals from a small dose of 2.5 mg, whereas some might need 50 mg to see any significant effect. That is why, as a basic thumb rule, it is always safe to begin with, low dosages, and slowly raise it with time. 

Also, most edibles come with a label containing the level of THC and CBD in it. So, please read the instructions carefully before consuming it.

Conclusion:

Edibles have a similar effect of high and euphoria as smoking cannabis. The time taken to see the edibles outcome will vary between individuals and the THC strength of the edibles. Consuming edibles is preferred by most people to avoid any damage to the lungs. It is an easy way to include in the lifestyle to heal many health ailments like pain, nausea, anxiety, and appetite problems. In case of an overdose by edibles, it can cause side effects but is rarely severe. In case a person feels panic attacks or shortness of breath, then visit a doctor immediately. Lastly, be patient with the edibles to work on the body.

About the author: Rebecca is a cannabis and health industry consultant who frequently writes about the latest trends in the industry with only one motive that is to create awareness about healthy living. She has been writing for a long time now and is becoming a recognized name in the cannabis industry.

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A Closer Look at Smokable Hemp

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CBD is growing rapidly in popularity, and the market is expected to reach $5 billion over the coming months. It appeals to people who are interested in health and fitness, those who are interested in the marijuana scene but who don’t want the psychoactive effect of THC, and those who are looking for pain relief, better sleep, and other similar benefits. There are many reasons someone might want to explore CBD. Before we start discussing the benefits of smokable hemp, it’s important to understand the differences between hemp and marijuana.

Smokable Hemp Explained

Smokable hemp is the flower bud of a hemp plant that has been cultivated with the intent of the crop being smoked. It contains CBD as one of many active ingredients. CBD is ‘cannabidiol’, one of many cannabinoids. CBD can be extracted from any form of the hemp plant, but smokable hemp contains more CBD than other varieties.

Photo by ERTH HEMP

There are other cannabinoids, such as CBN, CBC, THC, and CBG, that are also found in smokable hemp and cannabis. Cannabis is rich in THC, where hemp contains zero or close to zero THC. The other cannabinoids are found in varying percentages in varying strains, and it’s unclear what impact they have on the body. There are so many cannabinoids, and the way they interact with the bloodstream is so confusing that it can be difficult to tell which cannabinoids offer specific benefits.

CBD is thought to be the most beneficial of all the cannabinoids. It is also pleasant to smoke. If you are lucky enough to get access to high-quality hemp, you will likely find that it has an enjoyable taste, is relaxing, and doesn’t make you feel high. 

When you smoke hemp, you should feel the impact of the CBD quickly. Inhaling the compounds means that they get dissolved into the bloodstream, and that is faster than taking CBD orally. You should make sure that if you smoke hemp, you choose high-quality hemp, which can be bought online from sites like Organic CBD Nugs.

Fast Acting

Smoking hemp allows the plants to reach your bloodstream very quickly so that it will have an impact almost immediately. Many people who are struggling with anxiety find that if they smoke hemp, they feel more relaxed almost immediately. It can also help with specific aches and pains.

CBD does not make you feel high. It can also have a relaxing effect that makes it an excellent alternative to tobacco, with all of the health risks associated with smoking nicotine. Indeed, the balance of CBD and THC in marijuana can have an impact on the type of high that you experience. Some people who have aches and pains mix CBD into their food to get the benefit of a high dose spread out over the course of the day. CBD edibles are very popular and convenient.

If you are considering trying smokable hemp, make sure that you buy high-quality strains. Low-cost hemp may seem appealing, but the experience will not be good.

Common Misconceptions Surrounding Smokable Hemp

Perhaps the most common misconception about hemp is that smoking hemp makes you high. This is not the case. Hemp has a THC content of 0.3% at most, with many strains having even less than that. THC is the compound that makes people high when they smoke cannabis. There is not enough THC in hemp for there to be any impact.

Related to the issue of THC content is the misconception about legality. The farm bill has made smokable hemp legal in most states. If you have concerns, check the rules in your state to make sure there aren’t local regulations about hemp.

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The Most Popular Cannabis Strains of 2020

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Since the legalization of cannabis happened, more and more gardeners seem to show interest in growing cannabis. Spring is the perfect time to plow some seeds and clone plants. Most of the people are opting for home growing facilities to make the most out of this deal. You can also purchase in legal states by visiting any licensed store, showing your valid ID card and paying around $50 to $100 for a pack of ten seeds, or buy a small clone plant for much less amount. With this digitalization taking place, the online purchase of cannabis seeds is also regulated based on specific legal laws. Be it Sativa or Indica, and they are just a click away. Everyone is excited to see which strains would be popular in 2020!

All these strains are surely going to stir the cannabis market. Breeders work on them resiliently to come up with something effective every time which out beat the rest. With the legalization of marijuana, it became a versatile mode of medication at this time. There are a numerous amount of published articles speaking to its usage for the adults. Consider the right amount for the dosage, and if the person is aware of the strain, they are using for the medical or recreational purpose. The strains that are going to create a buzz due to their properties in 2020 are Cookies Gelato, Northern Lights, Royal Gorilla, Green Gelato, Triple G, and Hulkberry.

Without further ado, let’s get into the details!

Cookies Gelato

It is arguably true that this strain proves to be the most aromatic one, which is a lovechild of Girl Scout Cookies and Gelato 33. This breed comes from two legendry strains, and it inherits their sweet taste, insane potency, and high productivity. This robust bud is an ideal choice for people who have a great love for cannabis and have been using it for years now. Its monstrous THC level can quickly thrust the mind and suspends consciousness for hours. It is a beautiful manifestation of the best traits from both its parents, which helped it to earn its spot in a matter of minutes. A call to euphoric rush, all those novice smokers, this might not be one to start with. This hybrid contains 50% Sativa and 50% Indica and promises to bring unforgettable time being a luxury treat. 


Northern Lights

Merely mentioning the name of this strain is sufficient for all the cannabis connoisseurs. This pure Indica is cherished for its resinous bud and resilience. Its legendary status belongs to Afghanistan and Thai genetics. This tried and tested strain is pungently sweet and spicy with the right amount of aroma. It is an ideal deal for all those people who are looking for something to rest their psychological needs; your search ends right here. 


Royal Gorilla

Though this seed originated in the USA, now it is readily available outside of its premises. This insanely powerful hybrid has THC levels exceeding 25%, which makes it a prominent choice to balance euphoria and experience relaxation altogether. It is medically recommended by the doctors to treat chronic pains or other ailments due to its high potency.

This pleasantly green bud was a coincidental discovery but seemed a perfect one due to its blown away results. Its right balance made it well known among therapeutic usage. This hybrid is 50% Indica and Sativa balanced and is considered as an outstanding hybrid among the globe for its features. 


Green Gelato

Green Gelato came into existence by crossing Thin Mint Girl Scout Cookies and Sunset Sherbet. Exclusive craftsmanship was considered while working on this particular hybrid, which results in some of the best choices among cannabis connoisseur. The taste and aroma offered by this plant are hard to be described in words. It may seem weird to think about mixing mint cookies with orange sherbet, but what you get at the end makes it worthy enough to be consumed.

THC content passing 25% makes it strong high, and this intoxicating mixture will soon take one in the sea of tranquility. It takes around 8 to 9 weeks to grow and complete the flowering process. It can be grown indoors and outdoors, and length would vary accordingly. To make the most out of its harvesting, careful trimming and topping would be required. This strain also encompasses medical properties to deal with pain, mood swings and raising appetite, etc.


Triple G

Extracting the most exceptional traits from Gorilla Glue #4 and Gelato 33 results into having Triple G. It is one of the best-in-class hybrids which can please the body like anything else. Novice smokers should consider taking this specific strain with caution as it has a massive THC level. It causes an immediate euphoric rush, which will light up the central nervous system and brings an enjoyable feeling. It is only for those people who can handle being high and want to experience a ride of creativity and contemplation.


Hulkberry

These feminized seeds are readily available, being the best type of hybrid strain. Created by crossing Ghost OG with Strawberry Diesel; it is mainly 65 % Sativa and 35% Indica. Massive harvesting is expected from it, along with ultra-high THC production. It is also known as Bruce Banner #3, and it particularly stands out from the rest. It has already made its way by storm to Europe and beyond. It achieved cult status in a relatively short amount of time as it is unmistakably strong. Its THC content surpassing 28% makes one unleashing an energetic head high. This is not just a potent mixture; it also has a sweet fruity taste. This strain can quickly grow indoors and outdoors, where outdoor plants would be tall up to 200 cm, indoor plants would be something around 80 – 140 cm.

Check out our Review Section for our cannabis connoisseur’s reviews on the most popular strains, brands, products, dispensaries, and more!

If you would like to submit your products for review on NUGL Magazine, please send us an email at info@nugl.com

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Why Blue Dream Has Become a Legendary Strain

Find out why this strain with deep California roots has become legendary.

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It’s a cross between “Blueberry” and “Haze” strains, and it is sometimes also called “Azure Haze. Some people think it must be a dream. There’s a minimal history about this strain, to be honest. When it was initially created, the records were erased so that people wouldn’t know where it came from or how it was created.

This alone accounts for some of the allure of Blue Dream. The medical community quickly fell in love with the mysterious, dreamy strain that leaves you feeling a cerebral high while still coming through with fantastic flavor. Check Otheremedies for more information on cannabis strains. There’s no compromise with a Blue Dream buzz.

Blue Dream Factoids

? No one knows where it was created precisely.

? People speculate it came from Santa Cruz, but that could have been a dream?

? It’s THC-rich with a range of 17% – 24% THC in every dose.

? CBN levels can be as high as 1%

? CBD levels can reach as high as 2%

? It honestly tastes like sweet blueberries.

? The first effect is a cerebral rush that is helpful when you’re focused on a project and initially gives you a rush of energy.

? As the high peaks, you feel relaxed, calm, and in a state of extreme ‘chillaxation’ that will have you feeling no pain at all.

? This strain is not recommended if you have anxiety because of the initial impact. It could make anxiety worse before it gets better.

? It’s actually a stimulant.

? It can help with depression and lack of appetite.

? It works great for muscle spasms.

? If you suffer from pain due to an old injury, this strain will tackle it.

? Are you feeling sick? This strain is also quite capable of helping you to feel better.

? It’s an easy-to-grow choice for those who are new to growing.

? Indoor plants will flower in about 10-weeks.

? Blue Dream will yield approximately 21 ounces of bud per plant.

? Are you suffering from an artist’s block? Need some help with your creative mind? Blue Dream will have you dreaming up a storm of things that get your juices flowing.

? Feeling overly worried and bummed over bills right now? This is the strain that will have you relaxed and calm in no time.

? The terpene profile is peppery pine and mostly herbal.

? It’s Sativa-dominant hybrid cannabis.

? 59% of people report feeling happy after using the Blue Dream.

? People report feeling “free and loving” in the hippie style.

? It has been called “the Bayer aspirin of bud” that should be in every stoner’s medicine cabinet.

? Descendants of Blue Dream include Pine Queen Dream and DJ Andy Williams.

? It is most popular and easily located in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. Seattle loves the Blue Dream.

? If you are down, it’s a very quick pick me up.

? Conditions most helped by a Blue Dream include anxiety, autism, ADD/ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic diseases, depression, headaches, inflammation, nausea, PTSD, and stress.

? It smells like an earthy, sweet, fruity vanilla.

? It tastes like a fruity, blueberry, vanilla sort of berry.

? Some people say that it smells like blueberry pie and that the flavor stays on their tongue long after smoking it.

? It doesn’t cause the munchies as bad as some other strains can. Some people report having none at all.

? If you suffer from cluster headaches, this is the best strain for you.

? It’s been said to outlast other strains for the money because the high is longer-lasting. You will not go through this as fast as different strains.

? It is 60% Sativa and 40% Indica.

? There are approximately four different strains of Blue Dream, depending on the state and the grower from which your strain comes from.

? Blue Dream will thrive in an indoor hydroponic garden.

? Tests show that Blue Dream very commonly has more than 25% THC.

? This is considered “top-shelf” weed at most dispensaries.

No matter who you are, chances are that you’ll benefit from Blue Dream. It’s got an excellent taste for those who don’t particularly care for the more woody-toned flavored strains that are high in pine. This one tastes sweet and is known for leaving that sweet flavor in your mouth for long after use.

The only people who may not wish to use this strain are people who already suffer from high anxiety because the head rush that hits you first will be one of high alertness and deep focus, before the relaxation phase that kicks in later. This could cause anxiety to spike first and be counterintuitive.

You’ll find this strain harder to find on the East Coast and across the Midwest regions. The PNW has an abundance of this brand, and you’ll be able to find it in dispensaries with ease in those states. 

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420 Meaning: The Real History of April 20

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Written by: Anthony Franciosi

Like most of the legends, traditions, and slang of cannabis culture, the real history of the 420 meaning is obscured by hearsay, “he said, she said,” and a healthy dose of, “What the hell happened last night?” But that doesn’t make 420 any less important. In fact, 420 has become a well-nigh universal term for all things marijuana. It even has its own day: April 20 (4/20 for those who’ve already started celebrating).

So where did the concept of 420 come from? What does it mean? Why those particular numbers? And how did it spread around the world? In this article, the experts at Honest Marijuana clear the pot haze — for a few minutes, anyway, and then we’re right back into it — to provide you with the definitive 420 meaning.

Theories Of The 420 Meaning

smiling man holding out a marijuana cigarette on 420

Before we delve into the true origins of April 20, we’ll examine some of the strange, outlandish, and downright false theories of the 420 meaning.

H.P. Lovecraft

Back in 1939, H.P. Lovecraft and Kenneth Sterling wrote In The Walls Of Eryx. In this short story, Lovecraft writes briefly about “curious mirage-plants” that alter the narrator’s perception of reality at around 4:20. This would be a great explanation because we love us some Lovecraft (Cthulhu fhtagn!), but the logistics of this theory just don’t jive.

First, Lovecraft doesn’t elaborate about whether it’s 4:20 a.m. or 4:20 p.m. For some stoners, we guess it wouldn’t matter, but for us long-timers (read “old”), we’re going to be pretty much comatose in our beds at 4:20 a.m. unless something is really, REALLY wrong. Second, since Lovecraft lived on the east coast of the United States, we can only assume he was referring to 4:20 Eastern (daylight savings wasn’t a standard thing at that time). And 4:20 Eastern would make it 3:20 Central, 2:20 Mountain, and 1:20 Pacific (although we still don’t know if it was early morning or late afternoon).

So although Lovecraft’s story is one of the earliest mentions of psychedelia and 4:20 together in one place, it’s highly unlikely that he can claim responsibility for creating 420.

It’s a fun theory, but it’s false.

Dutch Teatime

Another popular theory holds that 4:20 (or 16:20 for 24-hour-clock enthusiasts) is standard teatime in Holland, the Netherlands. Geographically speaking, Holland is a region on the western coast of the Netherlands that includes the city of Amsterdam. And, as all good stoners know, Amsterdam is like Mecca for cannaenthusiasts.

Because of this link to the forward-thinking city that pioneered cannabis legalization back in the 1970s (yes, it’s been legal there for almost half a century), it’s as good an explanation as any for the real 420 meaning. Sadly, though, it’s just as false as the Lovecraft connection.

420 Active Chemicals

cannabis plant matter

Some believe that the history of the 420 meaning got its start because there are 420 active chemicals in cannabis. This is just plain wrong. There are way more than 420 active chemicals in your standard marijuana plant. And of those 420, only about 70 or so are cannabinoids unique to your favorite strain. The rest are just regular organic molecules common to pretty much every plant on the planet.

So, as a theory for the origin of 420, this explanation doesn’t hold water and sounds like something you would hear third- or fourth-hand from your uncle’s cousin’s friend’s 14-year-old niece. If someone tries to pass this off as cannon at your next smoke mesh, laugh scornfully in their face, point fingers derisively, and make them clean the gunk out of your bong to teach them a lesson about gullibility.

Adolf Hitler’s Birthday

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, but that’s a tenuous connection to the pot-smoking revelry that 420 has become today. Even if this explanation for the 420 meaning were even remotely true — which it’s NOT — we’re not sure why it would have gotten a start in the first place. Other than the birthdate thing, no one wants to honor one of the men responsible for some of the worst years western civilization has ever faced.

Plus, there’s absolutely no connection between Hitler and the wacky weed — although the world probably would have been a much better place if he’d have toked a fatty once or twice and just chilled the eff out. This theory is complete bunk.

A Bob Dylan Song

Back in 1966, Bob Dylan released the song “Rainy Day Women #12 & 35”. In said song, he sings extensively about getting stoned and ends with the now-famous chorus, “Everybody must get stoned!” Along with the fairly obvious connotations, the band — and Dylan himself — sound like they’re high as a kite. Plus, 12 x 35 = 420. Coincidence? Unfortunately, yes. While this is one of the most plausible theories for 420’s meaning, it’s also false.

Dylan himself says that he was singing about being stoned in the Biblical sense of the word — people hurling rocks at you — not about puffing a blunt and scarfing down Funyons and Pixie Sticks.It’s easy to see how well-meaning stoners could have run with their own understanding of “Everybody must get stoned!” — it is pretty obvious, after all — but there’s no historical proof this is where 420 got its start.

California Police Code

back view of woman smoking weed contemplating 420 meaning

Another plausible explanation for the origins of 420 goes back to the California police codes of the 1970s. Much like the term 5150 — the California law-enforcement code applied to people who are considered threateningly unstable or “crazy” — that was co-opted by the band Van Halen for the name of their seventh album, legend has it that 420 was the police code for “marijuana smoking.”

As cool as it would be to take “the man’s” own codes, throw them back in their faces, and create a day to celebrate marijuana openly, this theory is false as well.

R.I.P. Bob Marley

Some folks — don’t ask us who — swear that The Right Honorable Robert “Bob” Marley died on April 20 and that the current 420 celebration is a tribute to this cannabis icon. Unfortunately, this theory isn’t true either. Mr. Marley passed away on May 11 (511), not April 20.

You can — and should — still blaze a bong in honor of the pioneer of ganja culture; just don’t claim he’s the reason for 420.

The Real History Of 420

marijuana leaves in front of a sunset

The real story of 420’s meaning dates back to San Rafael High School (in San Rafael, California) in the 1970s and a group of five friends known as the Waldos. “Why Waldos?” you ask. Because they used to hang out by a wall outside the school. Get it? Wall-dos? Waldos? Anyway…

During harvest time in the fall of 1971, the Waldos heard rumor that a member of the Coast Guard had planted a cannabis crop and, because he had shipped out, could no longer tend the buds. They decided to search for the lost crop after practice (they were all high school athletes) and arranged to meet at the Louis Pasteur statue on campus at 4:20 p.m. This went on for several weeks and they took to reminding each other of their after-school plans by saying, “4:20 Louis.” Eventually, they dropped the “Louis” completely and started using 420 as a way to refer to their pot-smoking activities without squares being any the wiser.

They never did find the secret stash, and it would have stopped there — with a group of high school friends in California — if it weren’t for a fortunate coincidence and one of the most iconic rock bands of all time: The Grateful Dead.

man painting graffiti about the 420 meaning

By the early 1970s, the Dead had moved their rehearsal space from The Haight in San Francisco to the Marin County hills — just blocks from the Waldos’ school. In addition to being within walking distance of the heart of the counterculture, one of the Waldos’ dads managed real estate for the band, and another Waldo’s older brother was good friends with Dead bassist Phil Lesh. Because of this connection, the Waldos used to hang out in close proximity to the band where they, no doubt, used the term 420 quite often. From there, 420 spread through the roadies, band members, and fans until it was common in the underground language of the Dead Head community.

In the late 80s and early 90s, reporters from the magazine High Times heard the term 420 (in the form of a flyer that said, “We are going to meet at 4:20 on 4/20 for 420-in in Marin County…”) while attending a concert in Oakland, California. High Times took the story, ran with it, and started incorporating 420 into everything they did (eventually purchasing the web address 420.com). As cannabis culture began to grow in the United States and around the world, the idea of 420 continued to gain popularity.

With the legalization of marijuana in states across the union, 420 parties spread like wildfire and the celebration took off from there and transformed into the ganja-fest that it is today.

Impress Your Friends With Your 420 Knowledge

So there you have it, the real history of the 420 meaning. Now you can impress your friends with your extensive knowledge of marijuana history and not look like a blathering idiot in the process.

Bio: Anthony Franciosi also known as Ant, is an honest to goodness farmer whose fingers are as green as the organic cannabis he grows. He is the proud founder of Honest Marijuana – an all natural, completely organic marijuana growery in Colorado.

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How to Hotbox like a Pro for Epic Smoke Sessions

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If you are a cannabis enthusiast, then, hotboxing is a must-do activity. While hotboxing is fun and something you should try, it can be dangerous if you do it the wrong way. The activity involves oxygen deprivation, but you need to be careful because excessive carbon dioxide in the air can cause breathing complications.

So, how can you do it like a pro? Read on to find out. 

What is Hotboxing? 

Hotboxing is the act that involves the smoking of weed in a room with all the windows and entry points closed. You can also do it in any enclosed spaces like in a garage, shed, bathroom, or car can work as well. The idea is to block air from the outside from entering the enclosed space. This way, anyone in the room gets to enjoy the concentrated smoke. 

How to Hotbox like a Pro?

Once you conceive the idea of holding a hotboxing session, you need to do lots of planning to ensure that it’s a success. Here some of the things that you should take care of:

Pick a Good Location

First, you need to get a suitable location. The location defines the success of your idea. You also need to know the number of smokers and the quantity of smoke they are likely to generate and offset the air to smoke ratio. 

Before you begin the smoking session, you also want to ensure that the smoking space is tightly sealed to minimize leakage so that you can enjoy smoking for a while. You can use the available materials such as towels to seal any openings like under the door or tapes to seal any cracks. Besides, no one should enter or leave the room before the smoking session ends to avoid losing smoke.

Gather Supplies

Now that you have picked a location gathering supplies should be your next step. You can’t imagine the disappointment of running out of supplies at the climax of a hotboxing session. Sourcing for enough supplies will save you from the trouble and ensure that you have unlimited fun. If you are inviting friends, you can ask them to come with different strains for enhancing the session. 

When talking about supplies, we mean ensuring that you have enough sweaters, pillows, snacks, water, and smoking materials. You can also include the best vampire vape UK has to offer in your shopping list for a greater experience.

Bring weed in plenty because you are not on a regular puffing session. A successful hotboxing event qualifies by the amount of smoke you can see. Therefore, smoking materials should be available in plenty. 

The more you fill the air, the better. Make sure that all stoners light up their joint and smoke as if it is a competition. Surprise the party with a local production straight from your small farm. Joints and blunts come in handy when it comes to ingestion. The amount of smoke they produce will last for a longer time than vapour. You can get these supplies at a top weed vape store near you.

Invite Friends

Hotboxing is not an individual activity. It’s the teamwork in hotboxing that defines FUN. Then secondly, where is the adventure without weird friends? Being high in the company of like-minded friends defines hotboxing in the real sense. Consider it like a community event that every friend of yours has a stake in it. 

When smoking in a company, cultivating the positivity of every person present is important. A cool person translates to an epic session. Some light effects can make a hotboxing session something to look forward to every time. Let the smoke highlight the intoxication levels and release it to the atmosphere. Snacks and music of choice is something that completes the picture. 

Light a Candle 

During the smoking session, carbon dioxide builds up in your enclosure due to blocking passageways and airways. A smoke-filled space is one of the desires of hotboxing. However, this can be dangerous, and lighting the candle is essential as it helps you monitor the oxygen levels in the enclosed space to avoid breathing difficulties.

Candles use oxygen to burn. This means that a candle will only light up when the oxygen levels are enough. Lighting a candle in a hotbox event makes it romantic until it goes off, indicating it is time to open the windows or use the exit.

Avoid Breaking Law

Cops have a reputation for catching stoners’ hotboxing in their cars. That explains why getting an exclusive location is ideal. Always get a secure location that lets you enjoy the smoking session without interfering with other people or breaking laws.

Hotboxing is not a casual meeting at the local cafe. This is a full-blown event where you and your friends are getting high. Do not let anyone drive home or anywhere. Use the right devices like Evod twist for a safe and enjoyable experience.

Hotboxing pros plan everything beforehand. Find a chill spot for the night and avoid driving or going out on the road.

Clean the Smoking Space

It is not advisable to hold the session in spaces with materials that can hold the smell. But if you must, make sure to clean it thoroughly. The scent of weed lingers, and if the location was inside your car or one of your rooms, then future visitors will notice. Properly ventilating the room or car will help to get rid of the lingering smell. You can also use air fresheners to improve the scent.

Conclusion 

Hotboxing is one of the best ways to enjoy epic smoking sessions with your friends. If you plan everything correctly, then you can be sure to experience incredible moments. Although smoking weed in some places is legal, always take maximum precautions to avoid crossing with the authorities.

Bear it in your mind that hotboxing is potentially dangerous if you are not careful. Lack of oxygen inside a room full of people is a dangerous thing, and you should not let the sweet scent of ganja overrule you. Your safety should be of prime importance during the session.

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Top 10 Mistakes People Do When They Start Vaping

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People often make mistakes when they are trying out something new, and it is particularly true for those who have just started vaping. Even people with years of experience in vaping make common mistakes.

However, it shouldn’t discourage you from trying out e-cigarettes. The market is filled with many options that are perfect for beginners. If you plan to start vaping, you should get one of the devices that are meant for amateurs. Today’s article is going to focus on some of the mistakes you should avoid while vaping.

1.    Purchasing an Advanced Vape Mod Because of the Hype

One of the biggest mistakes committed by new vapours would be to buy a fancy device right at the beginning. In most scenarios, they turn out to be the wrong devices. Unfortunately, many sellers end up marketing expensive high-end vapes to beginners, which clearly aren’t right for them.

When you start vaping, you need to go with something easy. It has to be similar to regular cigarettes, allowing you to draw the right amount without burning your throat. Therefore, it is best to go with the ones that are compact and small with an automatic draw option. They are easy to use and offer a convenient transition.

If you want to buy one of the high-end devices, you must have an expert friend who can guide you.

2.    Purchasing an E-Cigarette of Poor Quality

It is essential for you to understand that all vape devices are not the same. There are ones that are really expensive, while some that are pretty cheap. While purchasing one, you need to ensure that you are going for one that guarantees quality. Therefore, it is best to buy one from a reputed store.

When you buy the wrong vape, it could lead to numerous problems. Some of them include –

•    Poor battery life

•    Coils burning out

•    Poor flavour production

•    Poor nicotine products

•    Poor vapour production

•    Poor performance

Fortunately, the market is filled with many reputed companies. Bigdaddysmoke is one of the highly regarded companies selling vape products. If you are looking for quality products, you can browse through their gallery.

3.    Purchasing the Wrong Flavour

It is essential to understand that your vaping experience will depend a lot of the kind of e-juice you purchase. You need to have the right flavour. Start with a few flavours that you might like. When you purchase a wrong flavour, it leaves a nasty aftertaste, which might ruin your experience completely.

4.    Getting the Right PG/VG Ratio

When you think about vaping, you need to consider the right PG/VG ratio. Vegetable glycerine VG) and propylene glycol (PG) are both present in e-liquids. They end up producing the vapour you see while vaping. VG is known to have a thicker and sweeter flavour while producing more vapour. On the other hand, PG offers a better hit while carrying the flavour better.

People usually start with higher PG level because it goes well with the basic coil. However, for larger devices, it is best to go with an e-juice that has a higher VG level.

5.    Ignoring the Charging Instructions

Battery malfunctions are known to be rare, but they can still occur. It is best to avoid such scenarios by following the guidelines mentioned in the manual. Ignoring them could end up being dangerous for you and the people around you.

6.    Not Regularly Changing the Coil

When tanks start getting old, they acquire gunk. There could also be many burnt spots. When it remains that way, the flavour could start decreasing or get burnt. Burnt coils aren’t good for your health. Hence, it is highly essential to have your coils changed regularly. Once in a while, you might also want to clean the tank.

7.    Combining the Wrong Tank and Battery

It may not be a major mistake, because many combinations actually work. However, you need to remember a few basics when you are combining a tank and better. A tank with high resistance must be combined with a low power setting.

If you combine the wrong tank and battery, it will work. But it might end up being a waste of power and money. Therefore, you shouldn’t be doing it.

8.    Burning Out Coils

It is a known fact that coils burn out. However, you could do a number of things that could prevent it from occurring.

•    Priming your coils could be useful. All you have to do it drip a couple of drops of e-liquid inside the holes of the coil till its centre. Allow the coil to seal the e-juice before trying it out for the first time.

•    Using the right power range is also essential. You can go through the guidelines to make your coil last longer.

9.    Allowing Battering to Run Out

You might get caught up pretty easily while vaping, but you should ensure that your e-cigarette doesn’t run out of battery. You won’t want to go crazy for a nicotine hit. Keep at least two batteries while you are travelling. Carrying a power bank could also be useful.

10.    Mixing Flavours

A lot of times, we are tempted to try out different flavours. It’s easy to switch from menthol to custard cream. However, you should clean your tank first. Some flavours don’t mix and could end up leaving a bad aftertaste.

Closing Thoughts

Make sure that you avoid these mistakes, and you are good to go when it comes to vaping. It might take some practice in the beginning, but you will soon master it.

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What We Need to Know about Fresh Frozen Marijuana

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Most people reading this article has consumed frozen food at some point in time. The food served in restaurants were also frozen before it came to you. Frozen food is considered to be pretty convenient, mainly because it allows you to cook many large batches of food and preserve for weeks, and sometimes months.

The technique has also been discovered by the cannabis industry, leading to fresh frozen marijuana. There are many home growers who are quite interests in freezing their week. In theory, frosted buds are known to retain the maximum amount of its quality. On the other hand, the commercial growing sector uses this technology for creating high THC resin that comes with beautiful aromas.

Harvest Preservation

Medical marijuana is legal in many individual states, but it isn’t legal federally. Therefore, the rules and regulations seem to be a little vague. When it comes to the supply and demand situation all over the country, there is a visible difference between the two. It is because of the number of dispensaries that are allowed to run.

Recreational marijuana was legalized in Illinois in June 2019. However, there are less than 200 dispensaries in the state. It means that one dispensary has to cater to 67,000 residents. It’s the same for other states as well with much higher population ratio. When it comes to Oregon, the ratio is most likely ten times higher.

Weed growers have been cultivating the herb to an extent where it is outstripping the demand significantly. Firms in California are facing the same kind of issues. If they are not able to sell their supply, there is an urgent need to store it for long-term use. When the herb is dried and properly cured, it could end up lasting for 18 months when stored in a cool and dry place far away from sunlight.

Some growers are using another method to store weed. It also helps companies to produce high-THC resin and rosin. Fresh frozen marijuana is known for keeping the harvests safe while providing premium-quality herb. Because of this reason, growers in California are freezing entire harvests to reap its benefits.

In order to obtain fresh frozen marijuana, you are going to need a huge amount of dry ice and a few industrial freezers. Cultivation companies believe that fresh frozen marijuana helps in saving money and time with low risk. Hence, they have let go of the post-harvest process that used to be extremely essential earlier in order to try out this new method of storing weed.

If you are looking for a place where you can get to buy high-quality cannabis products, weedcenter.org is one of the reputed sites online.

The Process

As mentioned earlier, the process would involve freezing cannabis cryogenically. Immediately after the harvest, the herb is frozen to ensure that the terpenes are completely preserved. Before the harvest is frozen, it has to be dried and cured before.

Fresh frozen marijuana is also referred to as a hashish product that is developed from frozen bud and trim.

If you have ever tried growing or harvesting cannabis, you will be aware of the traditional process. When most pistils change colour, or the trichomes appear to white with mushroom-like heads you should cut the week the way it is, because it will help in peaking THC levels. The next step would require drying the buds for many days and curing them in mason jars. The process might take a few months to result in the best tasting and smelling herb ultimately.

Drying and curing of marijuana can be a tricky process. You have to be extremely careful about the humidity and temperature of the storage rooms. If there is a failure to monitor the environmental conditions, it could result in mouldy or excessively dry marijuana. It can be infuriating to lose your buds to mould. Hence, freezing them seems like a far better option.

The freezing method is relatively easier. You will not have to go through the time-consuming process of drying and curing, as in the traditional method. Farmers are supposed to cut their plants down, remove the leaves, branches, and stems, while the rest is vacuum-sealed. Each bag could end up preserving several pounds of the herb.

In the next step, the bags have to be kept in a huge freezer at -38 degrees Fahrenheit. When the temperature is that low, the plant’s terpenes, flavours, and cannabinoids remain locked in, even the water.

However, speed is essential in this process. The buds shouldn’t be kept outside for more than 60 minutes. If they remain exposed to the environment for more than two hours, the herb will start losing monoterpenes. Within four hours, the plant will start losing specific terpenes. When this starts happening, you can say goodbye to the real taste of live resin.

The ultimate goal would be to form live resin, which would be followed by the grinding of the frozen buds to the point where it appears like a fine powder. After the process is done, the company would place the ground herb inside a machine and use butane has oil (BHO) extraction with the help of a closed-loop process. It will extract all the terpenes and cannabinoids, which includes THC and CBD.

The extract looks like a golden-brown liquid, which is heated to remove the solvent. Finally, live resin is sold to users who want to experience the potency guaranteed in concentrates.

Closing Thoughts

Fresh frozen marijuana is becoming increasingly popular among farmers because of the many benefits it has to offer. However, you should try the process at home to create live resin because it can be dangerous for amateurs.

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7 Interesting Facts you should know about cannabis

Cannabis is one of the choicest topics of controversy perpetually. From serving as one of the subjects for bringing about reforms in countries globally to being a subject of interest for medical research studies, cannabis has certainly been a global matter of involvement.

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Cannabis is one of the choicest topics of controversy perpetually. From serving as one of the subjects for bringing about reforms in countries globally to being a subject of interest for medical research studies, cannabis has certainly been a global matter of involvement.

After the validation from WHO, it’s easier to infer the subjective impact cannabis has left on the worldwide population. Though, over past reforms, its varied application has reduced it to a mere symbolization of controversies around the world.

Marijuana, Drugs, Cannabis, Drug, Hemp

Image Source: https://pixabay.com/vectors/marijuana-drugs-cannabis-drug-hemp-2766322/

Yet, for those who think that they know the extent of effects cannabis has on one’s life, then it’s time to rethink! From its origin to its political influence and future predicted consumption, it’s time to run down through Cannabis’ few fact checks.‘Canvas’ is the origin of the word ‘cannabis’: In today’s world, the canvas is a white-stained blank piece of linen or cloth wrapped around a wooden frame to serve as an artist’s artistic medium. Initially, the making of the canvas was of hemp or cannabis Sativa. Spanning back to an evolution of 12000 years; cannabis bred alongside our ancestors. Eventually, this psychoneurotic plant grew alongside our ancestors, leading to both evolving simultaneously.

1. ‘Canvas’ is the origin of the word ‘cannabis’: In today’s world, the canvas is a white-stained blank piece of linen or cloth wrapped around a wooden frame to serve as an artist’s artistic medium. Initially, the making of the canvas was of hemp or cannabis Sativa. Spanning back to an evolution of 12000 years; cannabis bred alongside our ancestors. Eventually, this psychoneurotic plant grew alongside our ancestors, leading to both evolving simultaneously.

2. Cannabis, a cure to cancer: “Several small studies of smoked marijuana found that it can help treat nausea and vomiting from cancer chemotherapy.” Whether smoked or vaporized, Marijuana serves as a subtle treatment to a few symptoms of cancer, thus improving the food intake for HIV patients, according to studies. The prevention is due to the freezing of cancer cells induced by a compound harbored in this medicinal-substance. One can buy THC tincture Canada and reap similar benefits easily.

3. The Royalty and cannabis: From Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, the cultivation of this drug was openly carried out in plantations, during their reigns. This practice gave way to indirect encouragement of the substance’s usage in their era. Even the British crown didn’t stay back and ordered their colonies to have cannabis plantations.

4. Cannabis and the first global application: Dating back to 2737 BC, recording the first use of Marijuana as a medicinal drug by Chinese Emperor Shen Nung, marked the beginning of an era filled with experimentation and understanding of this plant and eventually, its globalization. Initially, to find an ailment to gout and rheumatism, cannabis was sought after. Yet, this plant eventually grew to mark its worldwide dominance in various fields.

5. Dying from cannabis is impossible: According to experimental medic studies, its found that to die from abuse of weed, one would have to finish off approximately 1500 pounds of the substance in 15 minutes. “Most experts consider the risk of dying from marijuana itself to be very low.” Thus, it’s humanly impossible to carry out such a lethal overdose from cannabis usage. Although the symptoms of overuse of cannabis might hone altering-effects, they never lead to extremities such as death and are curable.

6. Marley took cannabis to the Grave: A vocal advocate for this ‘life-changing’ plant, Bob Marley, world-renowned, Jamaican Reggae artist, promoted using Marijuana throughout his 36 years of life. This dedication was shown even through his burial. He laid down to peace precisely with his five most favorite things, his Red Gibson guitar alongside an open bible and a bud of weed. The steady irony lies concerning the subtle reference of the holy text, 23rd Psalm, the page on which the bible was open. It states, “The Lord is my shepherd, I lack nothing. He makes me lie down in green pastures” ~23rd Psalm, Bible. In other words, this easily shrouds his admiration for a specific green plant and how sacred he considered it. One can buy hash online Canada and enjoy its therapeutic properties just like Bob Marley did.

Vinyl, Music, Bob Marley, Sound, Record

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7. The first thing sold off on the internet was cannabis: From history to music to science, perhaps cannabis impacted them all. Of all the things to be brought off the internet, the first-ever internet transaction was of a bag of Marijuana. Owing to the origins of a 2005 book written by John Markoff, called What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry, he claims the ‘first-ever seminal act of e-commerce to be a drug-deal’. In elaboration, it was an experimentation transaction between the students of Stanford Univerity’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and their counterparts in Massachusetts Institute of Technology who carried out this transaction using Arpanet.

There have been times when we have to rethink our knowledge of even our most known possessions, and perhaps cannabis is one of them. From decoding facts about its origin to its influence on World Powers, Legendary singers to even budding Technologists, it suffices to say that cannabis has seen it all. Just like somethings might be more than what meets the eye, let’s agree to disagree that weed isn’t merely a specific potent green-eyed extract that has only served as a topic of Controversy and Conspiracy. On the contrary, one can agree on discovering more than just seven facts about this multifaceted plant, which has been taking the world by storm!

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THC And How the Brain Works

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THC is a potent chemical that reaches the brain within seconds after inhaling cannabis smoke. The science behind this know-how may be important for people who wish to have a better understanding of marijuana. What follows is a breakdown of how it works.

After cannabis intake, users begin to feel light-headed and hazy. Eyes begin dilating, colors intensify, and other senses are enhanced. THC interacting with the brain is what causes these feelings as specific parts of the brain are involved.

Neuron Activity

Information is processed by neurons in the brain. Chemicals called neurotransmitters allow neurons to communicate. They fill the gap or synapse between neurons. Foreign chemicals such as THC cause a block in neuron talk. Neurotransmitters also bind to protein receptors which cause various mind and body functions to be turned on and off. Some neurons have thousands of receptors that are highly specific to certain neurotransmitters. THC can mimic or block neurotransmitter activity, interfering with their normal behavior.

Cannabinoid Receptors

Groups of cannabinoid receptors are highly concentrated within the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. Within the hippocampus, short-term memory functions in the temporal lobe. When THC binds with cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus, there is an interference in the recollection of recent events. While in the cerebellum, coordination is affected. And in the Basal Ganglia, were unconscious movement is directed, motor coordination is impaired. It may be important for users to be aware of these changes in brain activity, to ensure marijuana is consumed in a safe manner.

Physical Activity

Physical activities such as short term memory, learning, coordination, and problem-solving are affected by THC intake. Different parts of the brain have focused groups of cannabinoid receptors that are activated by anandamide, which is also a cannabinoid, but one the body makes. THC mimics anandamide by binding with cannabinoid receptors, activating neurons, producing adverse effects on the mind and body. Users appreciate a period of creativity and mental calm, complimenting marijuana for its health purposes.

At times, the science behind how THC works on the brain may sound a little thick. But understanding the basics will help users get the most out of their latest run to a marijuana dispensary and deepen their understanding and appreciation of the culture behind marijuana use.

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The Culture of Cannabis: Social Equity LA

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“Equality of Opportunity is the Essence of Social Justice”- Tony Honore

To truly address the legacies of inequality in communities impacted by the war on drugs, then we must approach our social, economic and environmental systems with holistic solutions.

To better understand the sacrifices that the legalized cannabis industry is founded on is a conversation of complexity and high opinion. But the truism of the situation resides in many individuals and communities that are still suffering from the effects of societal injustice, corruption, and inequality brought on by the war on drugs.

Where do we begin with such an intrinsic transition towards a culturally diverse cannabis industry?

Los Angeles, California, the first city to approve the historic socially equitable cannabis measure. SB 1294-The California Cannabis Equity Act 2018. This bill is intended to reverse the damaging impacts on individuals (aka “cannabis criminals” according to our judicial system) and the low-income communities in disadvantaged areas that have been affected by prior cannabis prohibition and faulty policies.

While some of the highest rates of racial disparities can be seen within the Latino and Black neighborhoods, many people of color have undergone the brunt end of unregulated cannabis entrepreneurship and have been arrested for selling a product that is now an extremely lucrative market.

The Los Angeles Social Equity Program is a restorative solution to reverse the municipal negligence that has led to a decay in our economic infrastructure. Through the development of an industry set to better serve the impacted black and brown communities, and empower women and minority groups more effectively are the beginning of a sustainable industry like no other. Or is it?

On September 3, 2019, Phase 3 Round 1 for submissions of the Los Angeles Social Equity Retail Licensing opened. Preparation commenced; qualified applicants connected with investors for what was looking to be a win/win opportunity to own a California cannabis business. The downfall? Incompetency in corporate contracting and a faulty sense of financial education.

How can a newcomer to an equity enterprise be protected from capitalism in corporate cannabis?

Leading the way for the collective voice of the people, Executive Director of LA Department of Cannabis (DCR), Cat Packer, is an impact leader committed to achieving social justice and diversity in the cannabis industry. Advocacy groups such as Social Equity LA, California Minority Alliance, Green Believers, M4MM, to name a few, are driving initiatives to improve historical social justice issues related to cannabis policy, community reinvestment opportunities and resources to help guide applicants towards success.

We are at the infancy of what is a monumental shift in equal opportunity in the cannabis space and beyond. As we enter a new millennium, millennials are bridging the gap amongst racial and ethnic diversity between generations. As the largest (75 Million) and most diverse group (44% minority), millennials are dedicated to social justice and are inspired to develop a new and more luminous world.

Through harvesting righteousness in this equitable opportunity for brown and black wealth, we are ushering in changes for shaping the entrepreneurial diversity that will be followed by later generations.

                                                            #StayElevated


Contact: Vanessa Macias

Phone: (661)874-8581

E-mail: info@dusttodiamondsinc.com


About Dust To Diamonds Incorporated:

In early 2016, Co-Founders Vanessa Macias and Mariah Dodson, set out on a mission to educate their community on the medicinal value and economic benefits of the newly regulated California Cannabis industry. As advocates and philanthropists with a synchronized passion for this life-saving plant, they were inspired to create a conscious-based business model to service their industry. With their friends and family’s well-being in mind, they launched Dust To Diamonds Inc.(D2D), a leading Southern California based health platform for wellness solutions and cannabinoid therapies. By 2018, the company was acknowledged for being founded by the youngest entrepreneurs in the history of cannabis legalization to be awarded cultivation and manufacturing business licensing in the State of California.

Learn more at www.dusttodiamondsinc.com or visit us on social media @dust.2.diamonds

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Cannabis and Consciousness

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“About half of the pleasure comes from the observer-part appreciating the work of the creator part”- Carl Sagan

Nirvana, a transcendent state of bliss, far beyond the physical human experience. To undergo such a supernatural state of being is to allow the Coherent Brainwaves of the spirit to speak surpassing the analytical mind.

As the evolution of mankind continues, we are at the greatest understanding of conscious perception, the awareness by the mind of itself and of the world as an entity. Two separate pieces that make up our lives as we know them.

You may be asking “What does any of this have to do with cannabis?”, well…, I’m glad that you subconsciously asked.

The Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compound found in the cannabis plant is the main psychoactive ingredient that stimulates the Amygdala (the region of the human brain that responds to pleasure). As the THC molecules attach to our cannabinoid receptors, this process activates our brain’s reward system, which unleashes elevated levels of dopamine that provide us with an induced state of euphoria.

Within moments of consuming THC, one might begin to drift into a spirit of pleasurable ecstasy followed by intensified senses of relaxation and happiness; increased clarity of subconscious perception; and a meditative state of awareness.

During the meditative state (which our mind operates in during consumption of THC), we are tapped into a brain frequency of Theta waves, which reduces the flow of incoming information and allows us clarity to awaken an abstract mentality in the realm of imagination.

Theta waves allow us to connect with our internal world which is in direct correlation with the subconscious thought. As you allow your mind to reflect on the world, as you perceive it through your flesh, you slowly transcend into a grand understanding of your spirit and then comes the awakening of who you are under the physical being of yourself.

To be aware of your true self is to be mindful of your position in the universe. Interpreting the planet from the conscious perception enlightens us to a new philosophy of existence. Can the effects of cannabis be the key to unlocking a new mind, and a new you? This could certainly be so.

As Canna-preneurs (who many of us, are also consumers) progress in creating the foundation for the future of cannabis, it is safe to say, that many companies are moving towards a more conscious-based business model to service not just the industry, but to be an asset to the world. We are witnessing an uprise in enterprises within the cannabis space moving towards Go-Green initiatives, Hemp materials for buildings, Hemp fibers for creating, Recycled Pod infrastructures, Zero waste factory processing and more.

 To deepen your understanding of the true services that cannabis can open us up to is far beyond our comprehension and still, it is just the beginning for the evolution of cannabis and the subconscious mind of man.

In the fast-paced Matrix of life, cannabis is becoming the acceptable answer to a relaxed mind, body, and spirit which in return, grants us an enlightened awareness of thy self.

To learn to simply BE is a meditative benefit gained from the consumption of the sacred cannabis plant. Such an impeccable opportunity to alleviate ourselves from what and who we are, even for a moment, provides us the gift of aspirations for heightened manifestation.

#StayElevated

About Dust To Diamonds Incorporated:

In early 2016, Co-Founders Vanessa Macias and Mariah Dodson, set out on a mission to educate their community on the medicinal value and economic benefits of the newly regulated California Cannabis industry. As advocates and philanthropists with a synchronized passion for this life-saving plant, they were inspired to create a conscious-based business model to service their industry. With their friends and family’s well-being in mind, they launched Dust To Diamonds Inc.(D2D), a leading Southern California based health platform for wellness solutions and cannabinoid therapies. By 2018, the company was acknowledged for being founded by the youngest entrepreneurs in the history of cannabis legalization to be awarded cultivation and manufacturing business licensing in the State of California.

Learn more at www.dusttodiamondsinc.com or visit us on social media @dust.2.diamonds


Contact: Vanessa Macias          Phone: (661)874-8581      E-mail: info@dusttodiamondsinc.com

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How to Get a Medical Marijuana Card in Canada

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Written by: Ryan Tomlinson

The process for applying for and receiving a license for medical hemp products in Canada is very streamlined and straightforward. As the emerging market for CBD continues to expand at an explosive rate, medical cannabis prescriptions are growing at an equal pace. This leaves many people who may not be familiar with the process, as well as those who have been subject to the misinformation, which is very common surrounding this subject, wondering what exactly the correct steps are to obtain one.

The first thing a potential applicant must do is acquire a copy of their medical records from their current physician. This is a simple process that shouldn’t take much time or effort at all. There should be no hoops to jump through or massive amounts of paperwork to fill out. This is your medical history and you are entitled to it by law, whenever you decide it’s appropriate. It is also not required that you discuss the reasoning behind the request with your doctor unless you choose to. Simply follow the protocol at your doctor’s office or clinic, which will probably be submitting a formal application and possibly signing a waiver stating that they are not responsible should your records be lost or stolen. 

After that is completed, you should receive a copy of your file.
Once that is complete, the next step is to set up an appointment with a health facility that offers treatments for patients with a medical cannabis prescription. The best option is to deal with one of the specialty centers which work exclusively with this method of therapy as they offer the entire spectrum of services, including actually helping you acquire your license. How it works is that you will first make an appointment for your initial consultation. And one of the most incredible perks about these specialty clinics is the fact that some of them offer a “virtual house call” where you can meet with the doctor via an online webchat. From there, the doctor will go over your medical history with you and discuss your current health condition. If it is decided that you are the right candidate for cannabis treatment, the helpful staff will then assist you with filling out the proper paperwork, gathering up the necessary documentation, and sending it off for approval. The process couldn’t be more straightforward.

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Terpenes 101: Kristen Yoder Teaches In Vegas

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Have you ever noticed how you (and others) instinctively SMELL cannabis if/when presented with it? For most consumers, it is the smell that makes the sale. It turns out that our NOSE knows a lot more than we ever could have imagined! Studies show that the scent profile of any given cannabis chemovar (strain) is just as integral to the physiological effect as the cannabinoid profile. 

This class is focused on taking the mystery out of cannabis science. More specifically, what are terpenes, what do they do, what is the entourage effect and how does it work, etc. The goal is to give you the information you need to make informed decisions based on your preferences and the effects you desire.

Who is the Terpenes 101 event for?

Anyone interested in learning about the individual constituents that make cannabis so unique and effective. 

What you will learn

  • The Olfactory System
  • Addressing the Sativa/Indica Myth
  • What is The Entourage Effect
  • Intro to Trichomes
  • Intro to Terpenes
  • Chemistry of Terpenes
  • Taxonomy vs Chemotaxonomy
  • Terpenes in Everyday Life

Attendees will receive

Each attendee will receive a terpene scent kit to take home and a gift bag filled with cannabis and terpene products – ALL PRODUCTS WILL HAVE TERPENE TEST RESULTS! 

Teacher Bio 

Kristen Yoder, featured in Vanity Fair, Forbes and named one of Marijuana Venture Magazine’s “40 Under 40 Rising Stars of Cannabis”, is a 14 year Los Angeles industry veteran and radio and podcast personality who has managed successful businesses in every sector of the cannabis industry. 

As the cannabis industry becomes inundated with dishonest businesses and misleading information campaigns, Kristen’s popularity as an outspoken and trusted authority on a variety subjects has led to her to teaching classes, speaking at events, on podcasts, in print and online media both nationally and internationally. When she isn’t sharing her fierce wit and sparkling personality on stage or on the air, she is advising/preparing her clients for the unique intricacies and quagmires often overlooked and unexpected by those entering the newly regulated cannabis landscape.  


Tags for social media posts: #cannabisscience #cannabis #terpenes #cannabischemistry #soiltotheoil #showtheterps 

CONTACT INFO

Website: soiltotheoil.com

Email: Kristen@soiltotheoil.com

Linkedin: linkedin.com/in/thatkristenyoder

Instagram: instagram.com/soiltotheoil

Podcast: http://cannabspod.libsyn.com/

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How To (Legally) Trip

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Curiosity about psychedelics is on an upward trend globally and nationally. Google searches for “psilocybin” and other terms relating to psychedelic substances have spiked in recent months, and will surely continue on this trajectory with the recent news that Johns Hopkins University is opening a research department for psychedelics, and that jurisdictions around the country are considering decriminalization measures. The fact, however, remains that for many active or aspiring psychonauts, most psychedelics are illegal and more importantly to many consumers, inaccessible. But you don’t necessarily need substances like psilocybin or LSD to have a trippy experience. 

Extremely regulated legal access to psychedelic medicines and therapies does exist in the US, mostly at or through programs like Hopkins. The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is in Phase 3 of clinical, FDA-approved MDMA trials, and institutions like NYU have very specific and limited opportunities for involvement in studies on psilocybin. While many have pointed out that all psychedelic use should be constitutionally protected as a religious liberty, the Supreme Court has upheld the right of only a few native groups to use peyote in their cultural practices, as they have since well before the Supreme Court even existed.

There are, however, a number of legal and accessible alternatives to the “illegal class of psychedelics,” and their availability has increased in the internet age, as have access to guidance and advice on how best to grow, find or learn about natural, plant-based, chemical and meditative methods to produce a psychedelic experience. For the purposes of this article, we will define “psychedelic” as a transcendent state of consciousness, and allow the reader or user to decide for themselves which substances or experiences qualify as psychedelic for them.

Salvia divinorum (“sage of the diviners”) — commonly referred to by just its first name — is a member of the mint and sage family and is known as possibly the most potent naturally occurring psychedelic. Salvia is indigenous to parts of Mexico, and is still found and used there, including by the Maztac tribe, who still use it for rituals that involve communicating with the spirits of the dead. It’s known for its immediate, short, and extremely intense trip when smoked, and is certainly not everyone’s cup of trippy tea. While efforts to ban salvia federally have so far stalled, it is illegal for sale or use in 37 states and regulated in many other states and localities, so be sure to check the local status before placing an online order if it’s not sold at your neighborhood head shop. 

Another option you may find while at your local head shop is kratom (mitragyna speciosa), unless you live in Indiana or Tennessee, where it’s been banned. Kratom, like salvia, has garnered some negative federal attention, but so far remains unscheduled. Other legally available trips that you can find locally or online include morning glory seeds (ipomoea violacea), which contain LSA, a relative and alternative to LSD. Similarly, the iconic fly agaric (amanita muscaria) mushroom derives its effect from ibotenic acid and muscimol, as opposed to psilocybin. Amanita muscara is also popular in some parts of Europe as a food, once the psychoactive properties have been boiled out. These examples represent only a fraction of the legal ways people are continuing to research and discover how they can alter and experiment with their own minds — and will likely continue to illustrate how the drug war practice of classifying and banning naturally occurring compounds has the countereffect of leading people to creative alternatives. 

It’s important to note that some potentially mind altering products are legal to purchase, but illegal for human consumption, which is another regulatory factor for the consumer to investigate and consider. Interested consumers should also consult and research a site such as Erowid before trying a new psychoactive substance, for important information about possible toxicity and side effects.

Still, some of the medically safest methods of achieving an altered state involve only meditation and breathing exercises. The parallels between meditative and psychedelic states have been thoroughly pointed out by researchers and scholars, and noted by anyone who’s had a good trip and also read Siddhartha. One popular method among psychonauts is holotropic breathwork, a method of intentionally accelerated breathing that leads to a “non-ordinary state of consciousness.” Holotropic breathing was developed in the ‘60s by the legendary Dr. Stanislav Grof and his wife Christina Grof after LSD (and much of the Grof’s therapeutic work with it) was outlawed. Although Dr. Grof is now retired from teaching, many guided courses are available through practitioners who have been directly trained by him. Free guidance, background and testimonials can also be found online. 

Another technique is sensory deprivation. Often experienced by floating in water in a dark isolation chamber, it has been endorsed by celebrities such as Joe Rogan, Steph Curry and John Lennon. (Lennon reportedly used float therapy to kick his heroin habit.) Someone interested in “floating” might want to look into some of the businesses that offer the experience. While rates at a “float center” will be about $100 an hour, your own tank could cost around $10,000 and up. 

Meanwhile, although sweat lodges and fasting can often accompany or be a part of the preparation for ayahuasca, peyote, and ibogaine trips, these experiences can also be psychedelic or hallucinatory in their own right — with the proper intention and implementation.

Of course, thanks to the recent measures passed in Denver and Oakland, and others that are being organized or considered, you may be able to cultivate or access more psychedelics legally in your area in the near future. Psilocybin producing fungi and DMT producing plants and grasses, as well as some varieties of cacti are relatively cheap and easy to grow with some internet guidance. Because of the cruel, confusing and hypocritical drug laws that still afflict the majority of citizens, we recommend that you verify the local laws before cultivating any natural plants, especially any that human beings have sacramentally or medically used throughout our existence. Please always exercise consideration and caution in potentially mind altering settings, and apply the principles of set and setting to your experience.

Written By Aaron Genuth, Contributor

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Terpenes in Cannabis

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The unique odor and flavor profile of a cannabis plant can be attributed to specific chemical compounds called terpenes. Like THC and other sought-after cannabinoids, the majority of the terpenes are found in a cannabis plant’s trichomes (the mushroom-like structures that cover the leaves and flowers of a female cannabis plant). In nature, all species of plants create terpenes. Plants create terpenes to attract pollinators, to repel hungry animals or pest insects, and/or to attract beneficial insects or predatory animals for protection. In most plants, including cannabis, the concentration of terpenes increases as the plant matures. In other words, when the plant gets closer to its reproductive stage, more energy is used to attract pollinators or to protect itself. As a cannabis plant reaches the end of its flowering stage, the terpenes are at their maximum content.

Terpenes Found in Cannabis

In most cases, it is not a single terpene, but a combination of multiple terpenes that contribute to a cannabis flower’s unique odors and flavors. Each terpene lends different characteristics to the cannabis plant’s overall flavors and odors. The following are just a few of the sought-after terpenes produced by cannabis plants. 

Pinene

Pinene is a terpene many are familiar with because it is associated with the fragrance of pine trees. The pine tree, or “piney”, smell found in some cannabis varieties is attributed to pinene. It is also believed that the terpene pinene is responsible for the “skunk” smell found in certain cannabis plants.

Limonene

Limonene is another fairly recognizable terpene. This citrusy terpene is also found in the rind of citrus fruits. A strong citrus smell in cannabis flowers is most likely created by the presence of limonene.

Terpineol

Terpineol is a terpene with a lilac, citrus, or apple blossom odor. Terpineol is found in low concentrations in the essential oils of many plants, including cannabis. 

Pulegone

Pulegone is a terpene with a minty odor and flavor. It is usually found in very small quantities in cannabis plants. 

B-Caryophyllene

B-Caryophyllene is the terpene normally associated with a peppery odor. A cannabis strain with a spicy or woody-spice odor is most likely exhibiting its B-Caryophyllene content.

Myrcene

Myrcene is the most prominent terpene found in most marijuana varieties.  Odors associated with myrcene are citrus, nutty, earthy, and clove. The specific odors will vary due to slight changes in the overall make up of the essential oils.

The fact that terpene production can be altered by atmospheric conditions and particular products and/or techniques further illustrates how every cannabis garden will produce a slightly different result. Even when two cannabis horticulturists grow the exact same strain, there are usually slight differences between the finished products. These subtle differences can be attributed to each crop’s unique terpene profile. As more knowledge is gained regarding the medicinal properties of terpenes and techniques for increased production are fine-tuned, the medicinal and recreational potential of cannabis will only continue to expand.

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No Link Between Legal Weed & Traffic Deaths

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The latest research finds that cannabis legalization is not linked to an increase in traffic deaths, challenging an entrenched assumption of prohibitionist propaganda.

Concerns about road safety are often cited as an argument against cannabis legalization. Now that seven years have passed since the historic votes by Colorado and Washington state to legalize, there is enough data for a statistical analysis of whether these fears are warranted — and one scholar has risen to the occasion. 

A new study from Kansas State University crunches the data multiple ways. Marijuana Moment, which first reported on the study last week, prominently quotes the most salient line from its conclusions: “[L]egalizing marijuana is not found to be a statistically significant predictor of fatality rates. This finding means that the legalization of marijuana for both medical and recreational purposes is not associated with either a reduction or increase in fatalities per 100,000 vehicle miles traveled.”

An Inconvenient Truth — For Prohibitionists

Entitled “Marijuana Legalization and Road Safety: A Panel Study of US States,” the survey was written by Andrew R. Young, a graduate student in regional and community planning. It examines statistics from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the 23 years from 1994 through 2016. 

Young first conducted a “regression analysis” — a statistical method that examines the relationship between two variables. This revealed no correlation between state legalization policies — whether of medical or “recreational” cannabis — and either an increase or decrease in traffic fatalities.

Young then a used a “difference-in-difference” model to compare traffic fatality rates in legal cannabis states and “control” states. This is a method that compares data from “treatment” and “control” groups to estimate a causal effect. Again, no concrete trend emerged from the analysis. For instance, in Arizona, where medical marijuana has been legalized, average traffic fatalities mirrored those of Wyoming and South Dakota, where cannabis remained prohibited. 

Traffic fatalities dropped in Washington, D.C. following the City Council’s 2010 approval of medical marijuana, and were lower than in Utah or Virginia, which prohibited all cannabis use. (Utah approved a medical marijuana law last November, but that was after the period covered by the study. Virginia became a “CBD-only” state in 2015.)

Young concluded: “According to the models, the recent upward trend of traffic fatality rates nationwide is not a result of medical marijuana legalization. In fact, the legalization of marijuana is not found to be a predictor of traffic fatalities.”

Addressing the prohibitionist exploitation of the issue, Young wrote: “These findings suggest that concerns of policy makers and the public that legalizing marijuana will worsen road safety are not entirely founded.”

Correlation Versus Causation

As we’ve noted before, the entire question of “marijuana-impaired driving” tends to be misunderstood. For example, it is true that Colorado has seen an increase in overall road fatalities since legalization in 2012, as well as an increase in cannabis-related driving offenses. But the increase in road fatalities is consistent with the trend across the U.S. — and is likely related to more motorists on the highways due to low oil prices. It was fortuitous for the prohibitionists that the world oil slump began in 2014 — just in time to provide negative spin for cannabis legalization. 

In 2009, when the oil price spike set off by the Iraq War was at its peak, highway fatalities coast to coast dropped to 1960s levels, as the Associated Press noted at the time.

All this goes to show once again that, as the old adage states, correlation does not imply causation. Young’s study demonstrates that evidence of a causal link between cannabis legalization and traffic fatalities just isn’t there.

TELL US, what other myths about cannabis would you like to see studied?

This video originally appeared on CannabisNow


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Edible Safety and Mold Prevention

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We are sharing this article from our friends at Edibles Magazine, a great piece on how to deal with mold and edible products. Credit to given to Rachel Zemser, thecannabisculinologist.com, and Edibles Magazine

There are countless foods we buy that can last a very long time, like thermally processed canned foods, diet soda, those protein shakes that they sell in the shelf stable cardboard boxes, and dry packaged items like spaghetti and rice. Those are the long lasting items—but there are many food items that don’t last a long time like fresh baked goods, meat, vegetables and fruit. These items can spoil fairly quickly when they are exposed to air, moisture, heat, and other microorganism friendly weather conditions.

Most microorganisms that cause spoilage in food are classified as bacteria, yeast or mold. Bacteria are tiny single-celled organisms that come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Bacterial growth cannot normally be seen, but the resulting damage that occurs when spoilage bacteria grow in food (bad odors and flavors, physical changes, etc.) is how we are able to detect that spoilage has occurred. Yeast and mold are both members of the fungi family, and are the cause of more visible spoilage in foods. Spoilage caused by yeast and mold can be seen easily as it grows and spreads on the surface of a food product. Mold is often seen as a fuzzy colored mass, while yeast will display itself as a white to pink/red circle on the spoiled food.

But how do these microorganisms get into your food in the first place? The microorganisms that are capable of spoiling food are ubiquitous in nature. They grow in the soil, land and air and also live on the skins of fruits, vegetables, animals and humans. They live inside the intestinal tracts of animals and can grow on improperly sanitized kitchen equipment with leftover residual food from the last production run. They can be transported directly to food via unwashed hands and dirty utensils. Spoilage organisms seek out opportunities to invade the flesh of any plant or animal tissue that can provide the specific nutrients and growth conditions that they need to survive. People who prepare food for consumption need to make sure they minimize the environmental conditions that promote microorganism growth. Generally speaking, products that have lots of moisture like meat, fruit and juices should be kept refrigerated. This will dramatically slow down microorganism growth. Products that are typically dry in nature like granola bars, cookies and candy should be packaged well to keep the outside moisture out. If moisture gets into a dry food product, that food will now be moist and support bacteria growth.

The cannabis edibles industry is typically known for infusing baked goods and candy for sale at dispensaries and cannabis shows. These food items are easy to make and infuse and typically can last quite a while before going bad. However, as entrepreneurs become more creative with their food ideas, they experience more rapid spoilage. Here are a few tips to slow down mold growth in your food products:
Be as sanitary as possible during the entire production process: Wash up, wear gloves when handling post cooked cooled foods and sanitize all your cooking equipment before and after using. This will reduce the amount of bacteria, yeasts and mold.

Bake the brownies/cookies till they are very very dry: Moist baked goods are delicious if you plan to eat them within 24 hours. However, a moist brownie that sits on the shelf for a few weeks, has water in it that can support the growth of microorganisms. The more water you take away, the harder it is for them to grow.

If you must keep the brownie moist, add preservatives: Preservatives come in many forms such as potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and cultured dextrose. They are an additional layer of defense that will slow down yeast and mold even in a moist environment.

Gummy bears should be kept dry too: Those gummy bears you buy at the store went through a 2-day severe drying process in special dehumidified rooms with dehydrators. This is why store bought gummies don’t get moldy. Most entrepreneurs and small batch manufacturers don’t have that type of drying equipment, so the final gelatin treat retains moisture and can become moldy. If you can’t sufficiently dry out the gummies you should keep them refrigerated. Adding extra sugar helps too, it binds up the water making it unavailable for microorganism growth.

Big food companies spent years trying to extend the shelf life of their food products. Their food scientists scrutinize over detail of the product like precise sugar percentages, product pH, moisture levels, water activity and soluble solids. They try to adjust those product details to ensure they do not support bacteria growth. This type of research takes time and you too will have to adjust your recipe frequently. By utilizing math, technical measuring tools and the scientific method you will be able to isolate and fix your mold issues.

Rachel Zemser, thecannabisculinologist.com

Find the original source here… http://ediblesmagazine.com/edibles/edibles-safety-and-preventing-mold/

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THC vs CBD

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CBD, also known as Cannabidiol is one of the chemical compounds that can be found in cannabis plants. The cannabis plant has 400 natural compounds, out of which 60 are unique. Cannabidiol is one of them. Despite the fact that it has numerous health benefits, many people still avoid it because they associate it with drugs.

Nonetheless, CBD is not considered a drug and once it is isolated it can be used for medicinal purposes. It also does not have the psychoactive effects of the THC chemical. This means that there are no negative side effects, and CBD is safe for everyone.

THC versus CBD

It is very important to understand that THC is the chemical compound of cannabis which is responsible for you “getting high”. This chemical has psychoactive effects, and it can either lead to a euphoric high or lead to negative side effects such as paranoia and anxiety. However, THC can help you with certain health problems such as chronic pain or skin conditions.

We should also add that THC can have some negative side effects, such as paranoia and anxiety and in some cases, it an even lead to depression. In addition to that, it can also cause short-term memory decrease and users might have time perception altered.

Meanwhile, CBD is another compound of the cannabis plants, but it can’t provide a high on its own. CBD oil can’t have more than .3% THC in it, which means that you are safe from all the negative side effects. Additionally, CBD has all the benefits of THC, which makes it the better alternative.

Where does CBD come from?

Since there is more than one plant in the cannabis family, there are multiple sources for CBD. However, the main ones remain marijuana and hemp. Despite the fact the CBD oil has the same properties, whether it is extracted from one plant or another, its legal status is different.

For example, if the source for CBD oil is marijuana, the substance might be illegal in some states. On the other hand, hemp leaves represent a CBD source that is usually accepted. Hemp has low THC (<0.3%) while marijuana has high THC (5% – 35%). You can find out more about this at cbdcentral.com.

Health benefits

CBD has multiple health benefits. For example, it can be used for chronic pain, especially since pain is usually caused by inflammation and CBD has powerful anti-inflammatory properties. CBD can be used for seizure relief and it can also help with anxiety, nausea and appetite problems. According to recent study, this oil may help counter withdrawal symptoms, whether we are talking about drugs or cigarettes.

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